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1. Green Sand Process
              In  sand casting, the mold is formed around a pattern by ramming sand, mixed with the proper bonding agent, onto the pattern. Then the pattern is removed, leaving a cavity in the shape of the casting to be made. Molten metal is poured into the mold, and after it has solidified the mold is broken to remove the casting. In making molds and cores, various agents can be used for bonding the sand. The agent most often used is a mixture of clay and water.

2. Dry Sand Process
          large components are very difficult to cast to exact size and dimensions. Hence, some foundries use dry sand molds to produce such parts. Dry sand molding is the green sand process modified by baking the mold at prescribed temperature. Engine blocks, large gears, big housings, construction parts, are examples of dry sand process candidates. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals are cast in this method.

3. Co2 Process
          A process for hardening molds or cores in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through dry clay-free silica sand to precipitate silica in the form of a gel from the sodium silicate binder. See Silica Sand.

4. Shell Process
          Process in which clay-free silica sand coated with a thermosetting resin or mixed with resin is placed on a heated metal pattern for a short period of time to form a partially hardened shell. The bulk of the sand mixture inside the resulting shell is removed for further use. The pattern and shell are then heated further to harden or polymerize the resin-sand mix, and the shell is removed from the pattern.

5. Cold Box Process
          A rapid coremaking process which does not require application of heat to cure the cores. Hardening of the cores is accomplished by chemical reaction rather than by conventional baking. A phenolic resin is added to the sand used to make the core. This resin reacts chemically when exposed to an accelerator, typically an active organic gas, and hardens very quickly, forming an organic bond in the core sand.

6. Molasses Process
          A solution of water and molasses sprayed on sand molds to strengthen mold surface and yield a fine finish layer.

7. No Bake Process
          Molds/cores produced with a resin bonded air setting sand. Also known as the air set process because molds are left to harden under normal atmospheric conditions.
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